Chlorine is one of the most abundant elements on this
earth, and is a constituent of common salt, i.e., sodium chloride. It is a
very reactive oxidizing and bleaching agent and has a wide range of
- PVC, a versatile plastic, by chlorination of ethylene
- Pesticides and insecticides such as BHC, DDT, etc.
- Solvents such as TCE, Chloromethanes, Chlorobenzenes,
- Chlorofluorocarbons used in refrigeration, fire-fighting, etc.
- Mono Chloro Acetic Acid (MCA), needed to make CMC used in textile
- Hydrochloric acid, Chloro Sulphonic acid, metallic chlorides &
other chlorine based chemicals
- Chlorinated paraffin wax, a plasticiser & chlorinated rubber
- Drugs and pharmaceuticals
Bleaching of pulp, cotton textiles etc. Distinfection and water
Yellow Liquid-clear Amber
||-34°C (1 atm)
|Density - liquid -
||1.468 gms/cc at 0°C
and 3.617 atm 3.209 g/L (0°C, 1 atm)
||3.617 atm (at 0°C)
|Latent heat of
||68.7 cal/gm at -34°C
|Liquid - Gas
||One volume of
liquid chlorine weighs as much as 457.6 volumes of gas at 0°C and 1
I - Flammability
Neither liquid nor gaseous chlorine is explosive or flammable.
II - Reactivity
1. A mixture of chlorine and hydrogen containing more than 5% of either
component, forms an explosive substance.
2. It reacts with ammonia, alkalies and hydroxides of alkaline earth
3. It reacts with organic compounds to form chlorinated derivatives and
hydrogen chloride. Some of these reactions, particularly those with
hydrocarbons, alcohols and ethers may become explosive.
4. Dry Chlorine reacts with several materials.
Packing and Labelling
Packing, labelling & storage of Chlorine are governed by the Gas
Cylinder Rules framed under the Explosives Act of the Government of India.
Chlorine is generally stored and sold in special grade steel containers
which are painted "golden yellow" as per IS:4379-1967
Chlorine cylinders should be stored in upright position and secured against
falling over. Tonne containers should be stored on their sides and should
not be stacked.
The valves on cylinders and tonne containers should be protected a stout
metal cap securely attached to the cylinder body.
The storage area should be separate. It should be dry, well-ventilated,
clean and protected from external heal sources such as steam pipes etc.
Cylinders and tonne containers should not be permitted to drop and no
object should be allowed to strike them with force.
A flexible copper tubing connection between the container and the piping
should be used to draw gas from the container. A barometric leg should be
installed before the entry of gas into the reactor.
There is no fire hazard, unless Chlorine comes in contact with Hydrogen,
powdered metals, phosphorous and certain organic compounds like
hydrocarbons, turpentine, ether etc.